This paper will discuss and offer treatment tips for loss compensation and surface integration with a focus on infilling with either wax or epoxy. A range of treatments are covered, including objects made of wood, ceramic, metal, enamel, wax, and a composite artifact. In order to treat a 3-dimensional object, a conservator must think below the surface to replicate not just the outer skin of a sculpture or object but to the material that constitutes the substrate below. There is a different approach for each individual work of art; not only the appearance and aesthetics must be considered, but also the structural stability, physical integrity and the original and cultural significance. Each medium represents a different challenge and there is no single method which can be used in all cases. Several different approaches to the topic are offered in this paper.